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资源类别: 教案库 > 英语教案 > 高等院校英语教案
教材版本: 北京师范大学
文件格式: WORD文档
文件大小: 202KB
地        区: 海南
年        份: 2009
更新时间: 2012-03-03
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  资源简介
    1.What is lexicology?
    Lexicology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the study of the vocabulary of a given language. It deals with words, their origin, development, structure, formation, meaning and usage.
    2.The definition of a word
    To sum up, the definition of a word comprises the following points
    A minimal free form of a language
    A sound unity
    A unit of meaning
    A form that can function alone in a sentence
    3.Classification of Words
    The English vocabulary consists of different kinds of words, which may be classified by different criteria. In this section we will discuss three main criteria:
    By origin----Native words and Loan words
    By level of usage-----Common /Literary /Colloquial /Slang/Technical words
    By notion-----Function words /Content words
    4.Classification of Words
    Native words: Words of Anglo-Saxon origin are native words. They form the great majority of the basic word stock of the English language. The basic word stock is the foundation of the vocabulary accumulated over a number of epochs. Most native words in modern English are monosyllabic. Though small in number, these words are the ones used most frequently in everyday speech and writing; they play no small part in linguistic performance and communication.
    In the native stock we find the most frequently used words denoting the commonest things necessary for life, such as
    1names of natural phenomena (sun, moon, rain, frost, snow…),
    2names of animals and plants (horse, dog, tree, flower…),
    3names of parts of body (head, hand, foot…),
    4adjectives denoting size and color (big, small, red, white…),
    5verbs expressing concrete actions (live, eat, work, go, come…)
    6auxiliary and modal verbs, pronouns, most numerals, prepositions and conjunctions.
    The fundamental features of the basic word stock
    1National character: Words of the basic word stock denote the most common things and phenomena of the word. These words cannot be avoided by any speaker of a given community, irrespective of class origin, education, profession, geographical regions, culture, etc.
    2Stability: as words in the basic word stock denote the commonest things necessary to life, they are likely to remain unchanged.
    3Productivity: Words of the basic word stock are mostly root words or monosyllabic words. They are very active in forming new words. For example, the word hand forms such derivatives and compounds as: handful, handy, handily, handbag, handball, handwriting, etc.
    4Collocability: Basic words combine readily with other words to form habitual expressions and phrases. The word hand again can be found in phrases like at first hand, hand in hand, to show one’s hand, to play into sb.’s hands, and so on.
    Loan words:The English vocabulary has replenished itself by continually taking over words from other languages over the centuries. Those words borrowed from other languages are loan words or borrowed words. The historical development of the English language shows that English is a heavy borrower; it has adopted words from almost every known language, especially from Latin, French, and Greek. After World War II the English vocabulary expanded at a rate much faster than ever before.
    Borrowed words:80% percent of the modern English vocabulary are borrowed words as is stated in Encyclopedia Americana. Some linguists say that English vocabulary is ‘cosmopolitan vocabulary’According to the degree of assimilation and manner of borrowing, we can bring the loan-words under four classes
    1) Denizens: ['denizn] n. 居民,外籍居民
    Denizens are words borrowed early in the past and now are well assimilated into the English language. In other words, they have come to conform to the English way of pronunciation and spelling. Some of the words are so successfully assimilated that only trained professionals may be aware of their origin.
    port---portus cup----cuppa
    shift----skipta change----changier
    pork----porc
    2) Aliens [ 'eiljən ] n. 外侨; a. 外国的,相异的 : Aliens are borrowed words which have retained their original pronunciation and spelling.
    décor (法) [ ‘deikɔ:(r); (US) dei’kɔ:r ] n. 装饰,陈设
    blitzkrieg (德) [‘blitskri:g]闪电战
    kowtow (汉) [ ‘kəu’tau ] n. 磕头 vi. 叩头
    status quo (拉) [steitəs ‘kwəʊ]现状
    typhoon [tai‘fu:n] (粤语) n. 台风
    3) Translation-loans: Words and expressions that are formed from the existing material in the English language and are formed according to the patterns taken from another language.
    a) words translated according to the meaning
    mother tongue----lingua maternal (maternel)
    black humour ---- humour noir
    masterpiece ---- meisterstuck
    b) words translated according to the sound
    lama--lama tea--te ketchup ['ketʃəp]蕃茄酱 --ketsiap
    4) semantic loans: Words of this category are not borrowed with reference to the form. But their meanings are borrowed. In other words, English has borrowed a new meaning for an existing word in the language.
    pioneer:
    a) explorer, person doing pioneering work.
    b) A member of ‘the Young Pioneer’ from Russian
    dumb:
    a) unable to speak
    b) stupid---from the German word ‘dumm’
    Don’t play dumb with me
    fresh: impertinent, cheeky----German word ‘frech’
    dream: originally ‘joy’, ‘music’. Its modern meaning was borrowed from Norwegian.



    3.1 The Historical Development
    The study of the historical development of the English vocabulary should not be treated in isolation from the history and the growth of the English language itself. Understanding the history may give us an insight into the nature of English: extremely rich and heterogeneous, a heavy borrower, full of synonyms, global language.
    Time Historical events Influences
    Celts (the earliest inhabitants The Celts
    450 The conquest and settlement of the Angles, Saxons, and the Jutes Anglo-Saxon
    790 the Scandinavian or the Danish conquests Old Norse borrowed
    1066 The Norman Conquest French borrowed
    16th-18th century。The Renaissance(14th century)。Latin /Other European languages borrowed
    At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries。Colonization。1.Non-European 2languages borrowed
    English worldwide
    After WWII。 Advance in science and technology。 Many new words created
    In fact English has adopted words from almost every known language in the course of its historical development. This has made the English vocabulary extremely rich and heterogeneous. English is supposed to have the most copious vocabulary of all the languages, estimated at more than a million words. It is also noted for its wealth of synonyms and idioms, a fact no doubt due to its sharing so many common words with other languages.
    3.2 The Growth of Present-day English Vocabulary
    Neologism:Neologisms are newly coined words or words that are given new meaning to fit new situation because of social, economic, political, cultural, scientific and technological changes in human society.
    After World War II, neologisms sweep in at a rate much faster than any other historical period. The main reasons for the frequent appearance of neologisms are three:
    1)Marked progress of science and technology
    2)Socio-economic, political and cultural changes
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