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  资源简介
    Charlie Chaplin

    Part I Background information (背景知识)
    查理卓别林(Charlie Chaplin)
    (Charlie Chaplin,1889年4月16日—1977年12月25日,全名为查尔斯·斯宾塞·卓别林爵士,昵称查理,Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin Jr,不列颠帝国勋章佩戴者),英国电影演员,导演,制片人。1889年4月16日生于伦敦,1977年12月25日卒于瑞士科西耶。
      卓别林幼年丧父,曾在游艺场和巡回剧团卖艺或打杂。1913年,随卡尔诺哑剧团去美国演出,被美国导演M.塞纳特看中,从此开始了他的电影生涯。1914年2月28日,头戴圆顶礼帽、手持竹手杖、足登大皮靴、走路像鸭子的流浪汉夏尔洛的形象首次出现在影片《阵雨之间》中。这一形象成为卓别林喜剧片的标志,风靡欧美20余年。他奠定了现代喜剧电影的基础,卓别林戴著圆顶硬礼帽和礼服的模样几乎成了喜剧电影的重要代表,往后不少艺人都以他的方式表演。
      从1919年开始,卓别林独立制片,此后一生共拍摄80余部喜剧片,其中在电影史上著名的影片有《淘金记》、《城市之光》、《摩登时代》、《大独裁者》、《凡尔杜先生》、《舞台生涯》等。这些影片反映了卓别林从一个普通的人道主义者到一位伟大的批判现实主义艺术大师的过程。卓别林以其精湛的表演艺术,对下层劳动者寄予深切同情,对资本主义社会的种种弊端进行辛辣的讽刺,对法西斯头子希特勒进行了无情的鞭笞。1952年,他受到麦卡锡主义的迫害,被迫离开美国,定居瑞士。在瑞士期间,他拍摄了尖锐讽刺麦卡锡主义的影片《一个国王在纽约》。1972年,美国隆重邀请卓别林回到好莱坞,授予他奥斯卡终身成就奖,称他“在本世纪为电影艺术作出不可估量的贡献”。
      卓别林最出色的角色是一个外貌流浪汉,内心则一幅绅士气度、穿着一件窄小的礼服、特大的裤子和鞋、戴着一顶圆顶硬礼帽、手持一根竹拐杖、留着一撇小胡子的形象。在无声电影时期卓别林是最有才能和影响最大的人物之一。他自己编写、导演、表演和发行他自己的电影。从在英国的大剧院作为孩童演员登台演出到他88岁高龄逝世他在娱乐业从事了70多年的生涯。从狄更斯式的伦敦童年一直达到了电影工业的世界顶端,卓别林的一生是20世纪最引人瞩目的一生之一,他本人成为了一个文化偶像。他一生中私生活和公众生活的高高低低受到了有些人的高度赞扬,也受到了其他一些人的严格批判。

    Part II TEXT Reading
    What is the text mainly about?
    The text is about Charlie Chaplin’s life which is full of contrasts. He came into the world miserable but brought the world endless joy. His Tramp on the screen, crude or coarse in the eyes of the English, gave him permanent fame in movie history. His nonsense screen language with no known nationality brought about his huge success. The contrast between his desire to be loved and his fear of being betrayed led to his painful marriages but brought him the luck to walk into the sunset with Oona. And even after his death, the theft of his body served as a fitting memorial to his life as a great comic.
    How is the text organized?
    The passage is made up of four parts—a general introduction of Charlie Chaplin, his professional success, his emotional life and the end of his story—with each of them developed through the device of contrast. By using contrast, the author skillfully weaves different aspects of his life around his life as a great comic, thus making the article an irresistible appeal to the reader.
    Part I(para 1-2)
    Main Idea:
    Chaplin was born into a poor family but created comic characters of lasting fame. He won more reputation in many other countries than in the land of his birth.
    Devices for developing it: Narration (叙事法)
    (The first three sentences tell of Chaplin’s poor living conditions objectively. The comparison in the last two sentences displays the author’s admiration for Chaplin.)
    Part II(para3-6)
    Main Idea:
    This part deals with Chaplin’s success from his famous comedy, The Tramp, to sound movies and his secrets of making great comedies.
    Devices for developing it: Key-word-centered narration (核心词叙述法)
    Part III(para 7-8)
    Main idea:
    The collision between his urge to be loved and his fear of being betrayed led to failure in his early marriages , found its way into his comedies, but meanwhile brought him the chance to walk off into the sunset with Oona in reality.
    Devices for developing it: General-specific (总分法)

    Part IV(para 9)
    Main Idea:
    After his death, Chaplin’s dead body was once stolen, but it was the incident that served as a fitting memorial to the great comic of world fame.
    Devices for developing it: Narration-argumentation (叙述-议论法)
    He was born in a poor area of south London. He wore his mother's old red stockings cut down for ankle socks. His mother was temporarily declared mad. Dickens might have created Charlie Chaplin's childhood. But only Charle Chaplin could have created the great comic character of " the Tramp ", the little man in rags who gave his creator permanent fame.
    他出生在伦敦南部的一个贫困地区, 他所穿的短袜是从妈妈的红色长袜上剪下来的。 他妈妈一度被诊断为精神失常。 狄更斯或许会创作出查理·卓别林的童年故事, 但只有查理·卓别林才能塑造出了不起的喜剧角色"流浪者",这个使其创作者声名永驻的衣衫褴褛的小人物。
    cut down reduce the size of (sth. such as clothing, writing, etc.) (衣服、文章等)改小,改短
    We need to cut the article down to 1,000 words. 我们需要把文章缩短到1,000字。
    in rags wearing clothes that are very old and torn 穿着破旧衣服的,衣衫褴褛的
    The children were dressed in rags. 那些孩子衣衫褴褛。
    to give sb. permanent fame 使某人声名永驻
    Honesty and uprightness during his tenure of office gave him permanent fame in the minds of the people.
    在任期间的清正廉洁使他在人民心中声名永驻

    Other countries — France, Italy, Spain, even Japan and Korea — have provided more applause (and profit) where Chaplin is concerned than the land of his birth. Chaplin quit Britain for good in 1913 when he journeyed to America with a group of performers to do his comedy act on the stage where talent scouts recruited him to work for Mack Sennett, the king of Hollywood comedy films.
    就卓别林而言,其他国家,如法国、意大利、西班牙,甚至日本和朝鲜,比他的出生地给予了他更多的掌声(和更多的收益)。 卓别林在1913年永久地离开了英国,与一些演员一起启程到美国进行舞台喜剧表演。 在那里,他被星探招募到好莱坞喜剧片之王麦克·塞纳特的旗下工作。
    to provide applause and profit where sb. is concerned 给予某人掌声和收益
    Our society should provide more applause and reward where the upholders of justice are concerned.
    我们的社会应给予伸张正义者更多的掌声和奖励。
    to quit a place for good永久地离开了某地
    Your hometown is a place that your feet may quit for good but your heart never.
    故乡是一个你的双脚或许会永远离开但心却决不会离开的地方。
    scout n.
    1.[C] a person employed to look for people with particular skills, esp. in sport or entertainment 被雇用来物色(运动员、演员等)人才的人员;猎头,星探
    He was spotted by a scout at the age of 13. 他在13岁那年就被猎头给盯上了。
    2. [C] a person, esp. a soldier, sent out to get information about where the enemy are and what they are doing 侦察员
    The scout reported that there was trouble on the road ahead.
    侦察员报告说前面路上有麻烦。
    He sent four scouts ahead to take a look at the bridge.
    他派了四名侦察员到前面去察看那座大桥的情况。

    Sad to say, many English people in the 1920's and 1930's thought Chaplin's Tramp a bit, well, " crude ". Certainly middle-class audiences did; the working-class audiences were more likely to clap for a character who revolted against authority, using his wicked little cane to trip it up, or aiming the heel of his boot for a well-placed kick at its broad rear. All the same, Chaplin's comic beggar didn't seem all that English or even working class. English tramps didn't sport tiny moustaches, huge pants or tail coats: European leaders and Italian waiters wore things like that. Then again, the Tramp's quick eye for a pretty girl had a coarse way about it that was considered, well, not quite nice by English audiences — that's how foreigners behaved, wasn't it? But for over half of his screen career, Chaplin had no screen voice to confirm his British nationality.
    不幸的是,20世纪二三十年代的很多英国人认为卓别林的"流浪者"多少有点"粗俗"。 中产阶级当然这样认为;劳动阶级倒更有可能为这样一个反抗权势的角色拍手喝彩: 他以顽皮的小拐杖使绊子,或把皮靴后跟对准权势者宽大的臀部一踢。 尽管如此,卓别林的喜剧乞丐形象并不那么像英国人,甚至也不像劳动阶级的人。 英国流浪者并不留小胡子,也不穿肥大的裤子或燕尾服: 欧洲的领导人和意大利的侍者才那样穿戴。 另外,流浪汉瞟着漂亮女孩的眼神也有些粗俗,被英国观众认为不太正派——只有外国人才那样,不是吗? 而在卓别林大半的银幕生涯中,银幕上的他是不出声的,也就无法证明他是英国人。
    sad to say不幸的是
    Sad to say, this seaside resort was formerly as beautiful as a painting, but now is overcrowded with people.
    不幸的是,这个海滨胜地曾经风景如画,现在却人满为患
    Please compare "certainly" with "surely".
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